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IPV4 and IPV6 Subnet Size Reference Table

November 20, 2015 by @HKw@! | 1 Comment | Filed in Networking

IPV4 SUBNETTING TABLES

Network Bits Subnet Mask Number of Hosts
/1 128.0.0.0 2147483646
/2 192.0.0.0 1073741822
/3 224.0.0.0 536870910
/4 240.0.0.0 268435454
/6 252.0.0.0 67108862
/7 254.0.0.0 33554430
/8 255.0.0.0 16777214
/9 255.128.0.0 8388606
/10 255.192.0.0 4194302
/11 255.224.0.0 2097150
/12 255.240.0.0 1048574
/13 255.248.0.0 524286
/14 255.252.0.0 262142
/15 255.254.0.0 131070
/16 255.255.0.0 65534
/17 255.255.128.0 32766
/18 255.255.192.0 16382
/19 255.255.224.0 8190
/20 255.255.240.0 4094
/21 255.255.248.0 2046
/22 255.255.252.0 1022
/23 255.255.254.0 510
/24 255.255.255.0 254
/25 255.255.255.128 126
/26 255.255.255.192 62
/27 255.255.255.224 30
/28 255.255.255.240 14
/29 255.255.255.248 6
/30 255.255.255.252 2

IPV6 SUBNETTING TABLES (more…)

How to do DNS lookup using Dig Command

April 16, 2015 by @HKw@! | No Comments | Filed in centos, Debian, Fedora, Linux, Mac OS X, Networking, RedHat, Ubuntu

Dig command is a command line tool use for querying DNS nameservers for information about host addresses, mail exchanges, nameservers, and related information. This tool is available on any Linux (unix) or Mac OS X operating system.

Example of using Dig Command

munkwais-MacBook-Pro:~ munkwai$ dig www.google.com

; <<>> DiG 9.8.3-P1 <<>> www.google.com
;; global options: +cmd
;; Got answer:
;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 32350
;; flags: qr rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 5, AUTHORITY: 0, ADDITIONAL: 0

;; QUESTION SECTION:
;www.google.com. IN A

;; ANSWER SECTION:
www.google.com. 299 IN A 173.194.126.80
www.google.com. 299 IN A 173.194.126.81
www.google.com. 299 IN A 173.194.126.83
www.google.com. 299 IN A 173.194.126.82
www.google.com. 299 IN A 173.194.126.84

;; Query time: 44 msec
;; SERVER: 8.8.8.8#53(8.8.8.8)
;; WHEN: Thu Apr 16 04:29:00 2015
;; MSG SIZE rcvd: 112

(more…)

Differences Between IPv4 and IPv6

October 18, 2014 by @HKw@! | No Comments | Filed in Networking

Below are the some difference between IPv4 and IPv6:-

IPv4 IPv6
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) uses broadcast ARP request frames to resolve an IPv4 address to a link-layer address. ARP request frames are replaced with multicast Neighbor Solicitation messages.

Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) manages local subnet group membership.

IGMP is replaced with Multicast Listener Discovery messages.

Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Router Discover, which is optional, determines the IPv4 address of the best default gateway.

ICMP Router Discovery is replaced with required ICMPv6 Router Solicitation and Router Advertisement messages.

Uses host (A) resource records in the DNS to map host names to IPv4 addresses.

Uses IPv6 host (AAAA) resource records in DNS to map host names to IPv6 addresses.

Uses pointer (PTR) resource records in the IN-ADDR.ARPA DNS domain to map IPv4 addresses to host names.

Uses pointer (PTR) resource records in the IP6.ARPA DNS domain to map IPv6 addresses to host names.

Must support a 576-byte packet size (possibly fragmented).

Must support a 1280-byte packet size (without fragmentation).