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DNS Query: Authoritative vs Non-Authoritative Responses

November 9, 2014 by @HKw@! | No Comments | Filed in DNS

I believe most of your used nslookup command to query  particular DNS record. Sometime, the nslookup return result with “Non-authoritative answer” follow by a list of nameservers. What “Non-authoritative answer” referring to?

When we sending DNS query to DNS Server, DNS server can provides either an authoritative or a non-authoritative response to the client query.

Below are the differences between Authoritative Responses and Non-Authoritative Responses


– An authoritative response is one in which the server returns an answer that it knows is correct, because the request is directed to the authoritative server that manages the domain. An DNS server is authoritative when it hosts a primary or secondary copy of a DNS Zone.


– A non authoritative response is one in which the DNS server that contains the requested domain in its cache answers a query by using forwarders or root hints. Because the answer provided might not be accurate (only authoritative DNS server can issue that domain information), it is called a non-authoritative response.

Windows Shared Folder Permission:Read vs Change vs Full Control

November 2, 2014 by @HKw@! | No Comments | Filed in Win2k12, Win2k8, Win7, Windows, Windows 8.1

windows-8-logo-excerpt1In Windows File Sharing, you can assign shared folder permissions to users, groups, or computers. However, unlike file permissions, you cannot configure shared folder permissions for individual files or folders in the shared folder.

Shared folder permissions are set for the shared folder itself, and apply universally to the entire contents of the shared folder for users who access the folder over the network.

When you create a shared folder, the default assigned shared permission for the Everyone group is set to Read.

Below are the lists of permissions that you can assign to a shared folder.

A) Read

– Users can view folder and file names, view file data and attributes, run program files and scripts, and navigate the folder structure within the shared folder

B) Change

– Users can create folders, add files to folders, change data in files, append data to files, change file attributes, delete folders and files, and perform all tasks permitted by the Read permission

C) Full Control

– Users can change file permissions, take ownership of files, and perform all tasks permitted by the Change permission.

Please take noted that Shared folder permissions apply only to users who access the folder over the network. They do not affect users who access the folder locally on the computer that stores the folder.

How to hide shared folder in Windows Environment?

November 2, 2014 by @HKw@! | No Comments | Filed in Win Vista, Win2k12, Win2k8, Win7, Windows, Windows 8.1, WinXP

windows-8-logo-excerpt1When you share a folder, the folder will visible in a network. But in some scenario you want t hide the shared folder from users who are browsing the network, you can create hidden shared folders.

Once you hide the shared folder, you cannot access it if you browse the server by using File Explorer. You can access a hidden shared folder by typing in its UNC path.

To hide a shared folder, you just need to append the dollar symbol ($) to the folder’s share name. 

For example, you can change a shared folder on File-Server1 named Sales into a hidden shared folder by naming the folder Sales$. 

The shared folder will be accessible over the network by using the UNC path \\File-Server1\Sales$.

If you have any others trick to hide the share folder, please share with me. 🙂